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Roman numerals, basic principles and their meaning



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ROMAN NUMERALS

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Basic Principles

When a small number comes before a larger number, the smaller number is
subtracted.  .

e.g. 4 = IV  (i.e. 5 – 1) 

 

When a smaller number follows a larger one, the two are added together.

e.g. 6 = VI (i.e. 5 + 1)]

 

When a letter is repeated is repeats its value –

e.g.      
XX = 10 + 10
           XXX = 10 + 10 + 10

 

The letters V,
L and D are never repeated as
X, C and
M serve that
purpose.

e.g. 10 = X not
VV     100 = C not
LL
     1000 = M not DD

 

A dash line over a numeral multiplies its value by 1000 –

        __
e.g.  = 10,000  

 

 

I

1

II

2

III

3

IV

4

V

5

VI

6

VII

7

VIII

8

IX

9

X

10

XI

11

XII

12

XIII

13

XIV

14

XV

15

XVI

16

XVII

17

XVIII

18

XIX

19

XX

20

XXX

30

XL

40

L

50

LX

60

LXX

70

LXXX

80

XC

90

C

100

CC200
CD400
D

500

DC600
DCC700
DCCC800
CM900
M

1000

MM

2000

MMI

2001

V5,000
X10,000
L50,000
C100,000
D500,000
M1,000,000

 

A bar across the top of the letter
increases the number 1,000 times.